Yesterday a question in the Julia’s Slack channel (request an invite here!) prompted a lively discussion about how to deal with pointers in Julia. As the history of the channel is ephemeral, I wrote this post to keep note of some interesting points.

In the C world, the operation of getting the value of a pointer is called dereferencing. When dealing with C libraries in Julia, we may need to get the value of a pointer into a Julia object. The Julia manual is quite detailed about accessing data in pointers and I warmly recommend reading that first.

Note that, usually, in Julia it’s not possible to “dereference” a pointer in the C-sense, because most of the operations we’re going to see will copy the data into Julia structures.

unsafe_load is the generic function to access the value of a pointer and copy it to a Julia object. However, depending on the specific data types involved, there may be different and more efficient solutions. For example, you can obtain the value of the pointer to an array with unsafe_wrap, while for strings there is unsafe_string.

## Example 1: get the current time

Let’s have a look at a simple time-related example.

julia> result = Ref{Int64}(0)
Base.RefValue{Int64}(0)

julia> ccall((:time, "libc.so.6"), Int64, (Ptr{Int64},), result)
1556838715

julia> result
Base.RefValue{Int64}(1556838715)


By calling the time function from the C standard library, we have saved in result the current number of seconds since the Unix epoch. We now want to turn this number into an instance of the C struct tm. To do this, we can use the localtime function. However, if we want to later use the tm struct in Julia we need to define a Julia mutable structure with the same layout as the C one and define the show method to have a fancy output:

julia> mutable struct Ctm
sec::Cint
min::Cint
hour::Cint
mday::Cint
mon::Cint
year::Cint
wday::Cint
yday::Cint
isdst::Cint
end

julia> function Base.show(io::IO, t::Ctm)
print(io, t.year + 1900, "-", lpad(t.mon, 2, "0"), "-",
end


We are now going to use unsafe_load to copy the result of the call to localtime into an instance of the Ctm structure:

julia> localtime = ccall((:localtime, "libc.so.6"), Ptr{Ctm}, (Ptr{Int64},), result)
Ptr{Ctm} @0x00007f730fe9d300

2019-04-03T00:11:55

Ctm
sec: Int32 55
min: Int32 11
hour: Int32 0
mday: Int32 3
mon: Int32 4
year: Int32 119
wday: Int32 5
yday: Int32 122
isdst: Int32 1


Of course, if you want to deal with dates you can use the Dates standard library instead of playing with system calls. Have also a look at the other time-related functions in the Base.Libc module of Julia.

## Example 2: copy from a data type to another one

Now that we’ve seen how to use unsafe_load, we can define the following function to “dereference” a generic pointer to a Julia object (with the caveat that we’re copying it’s value to the new object!):

julia> dereference(ptr::Ptr) = unsafe_load(ptr)
dereference (generic function with 1 method)

dereference (generic function with 2 methods)


This dereference function has two arguments: the type that will wrap the data, and the input pointer. The first argument is optional, and defaults to the type of the data pointed by ptr. The first method is effectively an alias of the plain unsafe_load. The second method is interesting because it allows us to copy the value of a pointer of a certain data type to an object of another type with the same memory layout.

For example, let’s define a simple Julia mutable structure called Bar, get an instance of it, and its pointer:

julia> mutable struct Bar
x::UInt64
end

julia> b = Bar(rand(UInt64))
Bar(0x55139e3fd61e43a4)

julia> pointer_from_objref(b)
Ptr{Nothing} @0x00007f1f72eb7850

julia> ptr = Ptr{Bar}(pointer_from_objref(b))
Ptr{Bar} @0x00007f1f72eb7850


pointer_from_objref gave us a pointer to Nothing (that is, the C void), we have then casted it to a pointer to Bar and assigned this pointer to ptr. We now define another data structure with the same memory layout as Bar and use dereference to “dereference” ptr as an instance of the new structure:

julia> mutable struct Foo
a::UInt16
b::UInt16
c::UInt32
end

julia> f = dereference(Foo, ptr)
Foo(0x43a4, 0xd61e, 0x55139e3f)


Note that

julia> UInt64(f.a) | UInt64(f.b) << 16 | UInt64(f.c) << 32
0x55139e3fd61e43a4

julia> b.x
0x55139e3fd61e43a4


as expected.

Remember that the term “dereference” is a stretch, because data is copied from the pointer. In fact:

julia> dereference(Foo, ptr) |> pointer_from_objref
Ptr{Nothing} @0x00007f1f72a62440

julia> dereference(Foo, ptr) |> pointer_from_objref
Ptr{Nothing} @0x00007f1f72fb3840

julia> dereference(Bar, ptr) |> pointer_from_objref
Ptr{Nothing} @0x00007f1f730054e0

julia> dereference(Bar, ptr) |> pointer_from_objref
Ptr{Nothing} @0x00007f1f73007340


## Conclusions

What we’ve seen here is nothing new for programmers already familiar with the C language, but at the same time shows how easy and natural can be to communicate from Julia with C programs.

## Special bonus

If you feel really bold and creative, you can even abuse the * operator to do very weird things like:

julia> Base.:*(ptr::Ptr) = dereference(ptr)

julia> Base.:*(T::DataType, ptr::Ptr) = dereference(T, ptr)

julia> *(ptr)
Bar(0x55139e3fd61e43a4)

julia> Foo *ptr
Foo(0x43a4, 0xd61e, 0x55139e3f)

julia> Bar *ptr
Bar(0x55139e3fd61e43a4)


However, the * operator shouldn’t be really used to mock C syntax is an awkward way (we’re not actually dereferencing and the syntax Foo *ptr is for declaration of a pointer rather than actual dereferencing), so don’t tell people that I told you to use this!